ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development


Standards on wind loads of various countries give wind loading map of respective country in which basic wind speeds are mentioned. Design wind speeds for designing buildings and other structures are evaluated by the structural designers from these basic wind speed values by incorporating many factors. One of these factors taken into consideration is for the local topography effect such as escarpments and hills. Standards on wind loads including Indian Standard give certain recommendations for the same. However, the steps involved in evaluating relevant modification factor for local topography as given in Indian Standard on Wind Loads are many. An effort has, therefore, been made by the authors to prepare design curves which can conveniently be used by the structural designers in evaluating the topography factor for further calculating design wind speed on escarpments. Graphical illustrations made from detailed calculations using the recommendations given in Indian Standard on Wind Loads are presented in this paper which would give the topography factor values conveniently. The authors noticed few discrepancies in the recommendations given in Indian Standard. The same have also been highlighted and remedial measures recommended in this paper.

Publication Date


Received Date

24 August 2021

Revised Date

21 June 2022

Accepted Date

14 July 2023